Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine: An overview of the progression and current use
Ozguven, Sukru Volkan
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On December 31, 2019; unidentified pneumonia cases were reported from China. It was soon announced that these cases were of viral origin and the cause was a new coronavirus (CoV). Initially, the virus was called "novel CoV" and then defined as "severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" after more detailed investigations. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 was named CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization. The rapid spread of the disease in a few months has resulted in a global pandemic and it continues. However, there are no specific effective anti-viral drugs for SARS-CoV-2 infection, some antiviral drugs are using in the therapy of COVID-19 with limited success. Currently, for the prevention of the pandemic, global vaccination seems to be important. Antiviral protection of vaccines is provided by the development of antibodies that can neutralize the virus. Antibody response develops against spike protein and nucleocapsid protein but neutralizing antibodies are formed against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein. It has also been shown that most viral proteins are recognized in T-cell responses. Vaccine discovery trials for COVID-19 have begun all over the world since the outbreak began. More than 100 vaccine studies against COVID-19 have been published in the last year. Some of them were urgently approved and used worldwide. The current study aimed to review the progression and current use of COVID-19 vaccines.
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