Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides on Different Pathways Involved in the Development of Spinal Cord Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Biochemical, Histopathologic, and Ultrastructural Analysis in a Rat Model.
Kahveci, Fatih Ozan
Gokce, Emre Cemal
Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi
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Objective: Inflammation and oxidative stress are 2 important factors in the emergence of paraplegia associated with spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCIRI) after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Here it is aimed to investigate the effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) on SCIRI. Methods: Rats were randomly selected into 4 groups of 8 animals each: sham, ischemia, methylprednisolone, and GLPS. To research the impacts of various pathways that are efficacious in formation of SCIRI, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase levels, and catalase, glutathione peroxidase activities, malondialdehyde levels, and caspase-3 activity were measured in tissues taken from the spinal cord of rats in all groups killed 24 hours after ischemia reperfusion injury. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor scale and inclined plane test were used for neurologic assessment before and after SCIRI. In addition, histologic and ultrastructural analyses of tissue samples in all groups were performed. Results: SCIRI also caused marked increase in tissue tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde levels, and caspase-3 activity, because of inflammation, increased free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, respectively. On the other hand, SCIRI caused significant reduction in tissue superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities. Pretreatment with GLPS likewise diminished the level of the spinal cord edema, inflammation, and tissue injury shown by pathologic and ultrastructural examination. Pretreatment with GLPS reversed all these biochemical changes and improved the altered neurologic status. Conclusions: These outcomes propose that pretreatment with GLPS prevents progression of SCIRI by alleviating inflammation, oxidation, and apoptosis. © 2021 Elsevier Inc.
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