Effect of layer thickness on residual monomer release in polymerization of bulk-fill composites
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The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the quantity of residual monomers leached from the bulk-fill composites with different compositions polymerized at varying layer thickness. Three bulk-fill (X-tra-fil, Beautifil Bulk Restorative, Fill-Up) and a nanohybrid composite (Filtek Z550) were used for the study. The composite resin samples were prepared with a stainless steel mold. For each composite, two groups were constructed. The samples in the first group were prepared using the 2 + 2 mm layering technique. In the second group, the composite samples were applied as a 4 mm-thick one layer and polymerized. Then, each composite samples were kept in a 75% ethanol solution and residual monomers released from composite resins were analyzed with an HPLC device after 24hour and 1 month. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Except the Fill-Up, all of residual monomer elution from the bulk-fill composites was significantly affected by the layer thickness (p < 0.05). The greatest monomer release was detected at 1 month after polymerization as a single 4 mm layer for Beautifil Bulk Restorative. Fill-Up composite showed similar residual monomer release in polymerization at different layer thicknesses compared to other composite resins. In the 2 + 2 mm layering technique, the least monomer elution was detected in the Filtek Z550 composite group. While Bis-GMA was the most released monomer in X-tra fil composite, UDMA was the most released monomer in all other composite resins. During polymerization of the bulk-fill composite, the layer thickness of the composite applied may affect the amount of residual monomers released from the composite resins. Conventional composites may release less monomer than bulk-fill composites when used with layering.
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