Low-Degree Tibial Slope Angle Prevents Component Overhang by Enlarging the Lateral Plateau Surface Area in Total Knee Arthroplasty.
Simsek, Mehmet Emin
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This study aimed to investigate whether overhang or underhang around the tibial component that occurs during the placement of tibial baseplates was affected by different slope angles of the tibial plateau and determine the changes in the lateral and medial plateau diameters while changing the slope angle in total knee arthroplasty. Three-dimensional tibia models were reconstructed using the computed tomography scans of 120 tibial dry bones. Tibial plateau slope cuts were performed with 9, 7, 5, 3, and 0 degrees of slope angles 2-mm below the subchondral bone in the deepest point of the medial plateau. Total, lateral, and medial tibial plateau areas and overhang/underhang rates were measured at each cut level. Digital implantations of the asymmetric and symmetric tibial baseplates were made on the tibial plateau with each slope angles. Following the implantations, the slope angle that prevents overhang or underhang at the bone border and the slope angle that has more surface area was identified. A significant increase was noted in the total tibial surface area, lateral plateau surface area, and lateral anteroposterior distance, whereas the slope cut angles were changed from 9 to 0 degrees in both gender groups. It was found that the amount of posteromedial underhang and posterolateral overhang increased in both the asymmetric and symmetric tibial baseplates when the slope angle was changed from 0 to 9 degrees. Although the mediolateral diameter did not change after the proximal tibia cuts at different slope angles, the surface area and anteroposterior diameter of the lateral plateau could change, leading to increased lateral plateau area. Although prosthesis designs are highly compatible with the tibial surface area, it should be noted that the component overhangs, especially beyond the posterolateral edge, it can be prevented by changing the slope cut angle in males and females.
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