Local curvature mismatch may worsen the midterm functional outcomes of osteochondral allograft transplantation.
Simsek, Mehmet Emin
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Purpose This study aimed to determine the magnitude of local curvature matching in the sagittal plane between an implanted graft and the condylar region receiving the graft and to analyze its effect on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA). Methods Patients who underwent knee OCA between 2016 and 2019 without circumferential step-off and were matched with a donor in accordance with the conventional matching process were included. The magnitude of donor-host local curvature matching was measured using postoperative sagittal magnetic resonance imaging data with Syngo (Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) and GeoGebra (GeoGebra GmbH, Linz, AU) software. In addition to radiological evaluation, ROC analysis was performed to compare the patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) obtained during the 2-year follow-up period among the patients in the SagA group, who had a graft match in the sagittal plane; SagB group, who had low convexity of the graft in the sagittal plane; and SagC group, who had high convexity of the graft in the sagittal plane in accordance with the determined indices. Results The study included 27 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and the mean clinical scores of the SagC group were not statistically significantly higher than those of the other groups at any timepoint during the follow-up. The mean Tegner, IKDC, total KOOS and SF-12 physical and mental health scores of the SagC group were lower than those of the other two groups at various follow-up time points, particularly at month 24 (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the SagA and SagB groups in the PROMs at any of the follow-up time points (n.s.). The significant differences observed between the SagC group and the other groups in the mean KOOS scores for function in daily living and function in sport and recreation were also observed between the SagA and SagB groups at the follow-ups (p < 0.05). Conclusion During OCA, a local curvature mismatch between the donor and the host involving large graft convexity may have a negative impact on midterm clinical outcomes. A preoperative analysis of the convexity relationship between the defect site and the graft region in the hemicondylar allograft to be used may enhance donor-host matching. The local analysis method described in the current study may also facilitate graft supply by ensuring donor-host matching without condyle-side and size matching.
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