The beneficial effect of clove essential oil and its major component, eugenol, on erectile function in diabetic rats
Yilmaz-Oral, Didem and Onder, Alev and Gur, Serap and Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A. and Kaya-Sezginer, Ecem and Oztekin, Cetin Volkan and Zor, Murat
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Diabetic men are at a higher risk of erectile dysfunction (ED). A tropical plant, clove (Syn. Eugenia caryophyllata, Caryophyllus aromaticus L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. \& L.M. Perry) from the Myrtaceae family has displayed aphrodisiac activity. The present research aimed to investigate the impacts of clove essential oil (CEO) and the ingredient of CEO, eugenol (E) on ED in diabetic rats. We divided Sprague-Dawley rats into control and diabetic groups. Erectile function was evaluated before and after CEO and E intracavernosal injection. CEO- and E-induced relaxation responses were investigated in isolated corpus cavernosum (CC) using various inhibitors. The intracavernous administration of CEO and E restored erectile responses in diabetic rats. CEO and E induced remarkable relaxation in all groups. CEO- and E-induced relaxation responses were partially inhibited after pre-contraction with KCl. Tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide inhibited the relaxation response to CEO. Glibenclamide inhibited maximum relaxation to E. The inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), soluble guanylyl cyclase and nifedipine did not change CEO- and E-induced relaxation responses. The current results suggest that CEO and the major compound of the essential oil, E improved diabetes-induced ED in rats, and CEO caused CC relaxation via K+ channels independently NO signalling pathway.
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